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Some Grammatical Prefixes

In our online dictionary, some prefixed words are listed alphabetically both with and without their prefix. Both links will point to the same entry if the meaning is generally the same with our without the prefix. Click here for a dictionary entry which shows the use of several different prefixes.

Here are some commonly used prefixes. Click on the Thai word for examples of usage.

prefix purpose example(s): unprefixed - prefixed
การ  converts a verb or adjective into a noun, a general abstract description of the state or static process. ตกปลา  (to fish) the general, abstract activity การตกปลา (fishing), a noun or adjective.
ความ  converts a verb or adjective into a noun, the general abstract feeling of the action.

เร็ว   (fast)

ร้อน  (hot)

ความเร็ว  (speed)

ความร้อน (heat)

ด้วย  just as in English, the word 'with' can have the effect of converting a noun into an adverb. ความนับถือ (respect) ด้วยความนับถือ (respectfully).
ด้วยความ converts an adjective or verb into an adverb. เคารพ   /khaoM rohpH/ (to respect; to esteem; to hold in high regard; to revere) ด้วยความเคารพ  /duayF khwaamM khaoM rohpH/ (with respect...; respectfully yours...)
โดย  converts a noun into an adverb.

เร็ว   (fast)

ง่าย  (easy)

โดยเร็ว (quickly)

โดยง่าย (easily)

น่า  this prefix to a Thai verb makes it into an adjective which expresses an opinion of the verb as worth enacting, similar to the -able suffix in English.

รัก  (love)

เกลียด  (hate)

น่ารัก  (lovable, cute)

น่าเกลียด (hatable, ugly)

บ้า  converts a noun into an adjective, meaning "crazy about..."

ทอง    /thaawngM/ (gold; Au)

ภาพยนตร์  /phaapF phaH yohnM/ (movie; moving picture; film; motion picture)

บ้าทอง  /baaF thaawngM/ (fanatical about gold)

บ้าภาพยนตร์  /baaF phaapF phaH yohnM/ (fanatical about movies)

มัว converts a verb into a modifier meaning "[is] engrossed in (that action)"

พะวง  /phaH wohngM/ ([is] anxious (for); worried; concerned)

เมา   /maoM/ ([is] drunk; intoxicated; inebriated; dizzy; sick; [has] nausea)

มัวพะวง   /muaaM phaH wohngM/ ([is] overly anxious for; worried or concerned about)

มัวเมา  /muaaM maoM/ ([is] infatuated with or addicted to)

ไร้  prefix for an adjective corresponding to the English suffix '-less.' สนิม    /saL nimR/ (rust; oxidation) ไร้สนิม  /raiH saL nimR/ ([of steel] stainless)
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