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The Complementive in Thai Syntax

NotesAcknowledgement to Don Sena for providing these examples as part of his paper "The Complementive in Thai Syntax," (See the full paper in the "Reference" section)
bangM eernM khaoR khapL rohtH khaoF bpaiM naiM khuuM
"He accidentally drove the car into a ditch."
khaoR gaawF glapL baanF leeuyM
"He went straight home."
naiM meuuangM neeH maiF meeM raanH netH
"In this town, there’s *no* internet café."
maiF meeM raanH netH naiM meuuangM neeH
"There’s no internet café *in this town*."
อยู่ดี ๆ อยากหัวเราะ
yuuL deeM deeM yaakL huaaR rawH
"All of a sudden, I felt like laughing."
ช่วงไหนจะจีบก็มาถี่อยู่ดี ๆ ก็หายไปซะงั้น
chuaangF naiR jaL jeepL gaawF maaM theeL yuuL deeM deeM gaawF haaiR bpaiM saH nganH
"Whenever he would come to court me, he’d flirt again and again. Then, suddenly, he’d disappear, just like that."
phanM raH yaaM khaawngR phohmR yaangL naawyH phohmR saaR maatF jaL liiangH duuM laaeM laawnL daiF deeM phaawM
"I’m at least able to support my wife well enough."
ต้องทำการบ้านให้ได้ ไม่งั้นคงไม่ผ่านวิชานี้
dtawngF thamM gaanM baanF haiF daiF maiF nganH khohngM maiF phaanL wiH chaaM neeH
"You’ve got to do your homework; otherwise, you’re not likely to pass this course."
ถึงยังไงก็ตาม ผมยังไม่ค่อยกล้าไปขอสู่
theungR yangM ngaiM gaawF dtaamM phohmR yangM maiF khaawyF glaaF bpaiM khaawR suuL
"Even so, I’m still afraid to go ask her to marry me."
maaeoM manM maaM saH aehngM
"The cat came all by itself."
bpenM thamM maH daaM yuuL aehngM
"It’s only normal."
phohmR khaawR deernM bpaiM duayF ganM daiF maiH
"May I walk along [with you]?"
เขาสมัครจะเล่นกับพวกเด็ก ๆ ด้วยกัน
khaoR saL makL jaL lenF gapL phuaakF dekL dekL duayF ganM
"He offered to play along with the kids."
khruuM dtaawnM nanH yangM bpenM nakH riianM eekL
"The teacher at that time was still a student."
khuaanM jaL thamM haiF setL bpaiM thaoF nanH
"We just ought to get it finished, that’s all."
maaR dtuaaM nanH aoM dtaaeL ginM thaoF nanH
"The only thing that dog wants to do is to eat."
khruuM bpenM nakH raawngH phlaehngM yuuL duayF
"The teacher is also a singer (in addition to being an instructor)."
ตอนนั้นผมทำงานไปด้วย เรียนไปด้วย
dtaawnM nanH phohmR thamM ngaanM bpaiM duayF riianM bpaiM duayF
"At that time, I was working and studying, both."
laaeoH khaoR gaawF maiF maaM saH duayF
"And he *didn’t come*, either."
khruuM bpenM nakH riianM yuuL meuuanR ganM
"The teacher is a student, too (like the rest of us)."
maiF ruuH meuuanR ganM
"I don’t know, either (don’t know, myself)."
เขาก็ตั้งใจว่า จะมาเหมือนกัน
khaoR gaawF dtangF jaiM waaF jaL maaM meuuanR ganM
"He decided he would come, anyway."
ผมไม่ได้ไปกรุงเทพฯ ไปปทุมธานีต่างหาก
phohmR maiF daiF bpaiM groongM thaehpF bpaiM bpaL thoomM thaaM neeM dtaangL haakL
"I didn’t go to Bangkok. Went to *Pathumthani* (instead)."
khaoR bpitL bpraL dtuuM saH dtaangL haakL
"He shut the door (instead of doing something else, like coming out of the room)."
ผมไม่ใช่ชื่อแดน ชื่อดอนต่างหาก
phohmR maiF chaiF cheuuF daaenM cheuuF daawnM dtaangL haakL
"My name isn’t Dan. It’s Don."
เขารู้ตัวว่า เขาไม่สบายมาก เขาก็ยังไปทำงานอยู่ดี
khaoR ruuH dtuaaM waaF khaoR maiF saL baaiM maakF khaoR gaawF yangM bpaiM thamM ngaanM yuuL deeM
"He realized that he was very sick, but he went to work (in spite of it)."
เขาไม่ค่อยดูหนังสือเท่าไหร่ เขาก็ยังสอบผ่านอยู่ดี
khaoR maiF khaawyF duuM nangR seuuR thaoF raiL khaoR gaawF yangM saawpL phaanL yuuL deeM
"He hardly studied at all. He still passed the exam, though (contrary to what we would expect)."
tho:hM haaR khaoR thanM theeM siH
"Call him right away."
raoM saawngR bpaiM ro:hngM raaemM leeuyM
"The two of us went right to [or straight to] the hotel (without stopping on the way to do or to get anything)."
meuuangM neeH phohmR maiF ruuH jakL khraiM leeuyM
"In this town, I don’t know anybody at all."
khaawR haiF khaoR duuM theeM
"Let him have a look at it (at least this once)."
phohmR yaakL thuukL huayR saH theeM neungM
"I’d like to win the lottery this once! (Now is the time for me to do it, at long last.)."
bpaiM saH theeM siF
"Why don’t you go?!"
phohmR yaakL jaL aanL saH naawyL
"I’d like to try reading it (for just a bit; it’s the thing for me to do.)."
waeH maaM yiiamF naawyL daiF maiH
"Stop off (along the way) and pay me a little visit, won’t you?"
thaaF khaoR yaakL bpaiM gaawF bplaawyL haiF khaoR bpaiM gaawF laaeoH ganM
"If he wants to go, let’s just let him go (and be done with it)."
haiF bpenM reuuangF khaawngR khwaamM cheuuaF gaawF laaeoH ganM khaF
"Let’s just leave it as a matter of belief."
phohmR ginM laaeoH
"I already ate."
phaawF phohmR bpenM phohnM laH reuuanM laaeoH
"My father is a civilian now."
khaoR thamM ngaanM saH laaeoH
"He has done the work."
chanR bpaiM thamM ngaanM gaawnL naH khaH
"I’m going to work, now – OK?"
laawnL maiF yaakL haiF khoonM bpaiM gaawnL
"She doesn’t want you to go just yet."
raoM dtitL thooH raH yoongF laaeoH
"We’re already tied up in all kinds of business."
meeM khohnM nangF yuuL gaawnL laaeoH
"There had already been someone sitting there sometime earlier."
ผมต้องฝืนกินยา ตราบใดหมอเห็นว่า จำเป็นจริง ๆ
phohmR dtawngF feuunR ginM yaaM dtraapL daiM maawR henR waaF jamM bpenM jingM jingM
"I’ve got to take [this] medicine as long as the doctor thinks it’s really necessary."
จริง ๆ แล้วหล่อนเรียนเลขดีกว่าคุณคงคิด
jingM jingM laaeoH laawnL riianM laehkF deeM gwaaL khoonM khohngM khitH
"Truth is, she’s learning her arithmetic better than you may think."
dtaawnM dekL maiF kheeuyM dtangF riianM baaepL jingM jangM
"When I was a kid, I never took my studies seriously."
ngaanM bpaaM dteeF khraaoM nanH duuM changF saL nookL saL naanR ganM jingM
"That time the party seemed to be quite enjoyable indeed."
phuaakF khaoR khuyM ganM yaangL saL nookL saL naanR
"They’re cheerfully chatting together."
จุดเทียนส่งเวียนรอบjootL thiianM sohngL wiianM raawpFpassing lighted candles round and round
pheeR seuuaF gamM langM binM raawpF daawkL maaiH
"Butterflies are circling around the flowers."
เด็ก ๆ นั่ง ทานไอศกรีมกันอย่างเพลิดเพลิน
dekL dekL nangF thaanM aiM saL greemM ganM yaangL phleertF phleernM
"The kids are seated, pleasurably eating ice-cream."
raoM phleertF phleernM gapL thamM maH chaatF raawpF khaangF
"We enjoy our natural surroundings."
khaoR aanL reoM
"He reads fast!"
maiF dtawngF rakH chanR maakF dtaaeL khaawR haiF rakH saL mamL saL muuhrR dtaL laawtL bpaiM
"You don’t have to love me very much, but I do ask that you love me always and forever."
chuaangF naiR jaL jeepL gaawF maaM theeL yuuL ganM deeM gaawF haaiR bpaiM saH nganH
"Whenever he was in a courtship relationship with me, he’d come [to see me] again and again. Then, suddenly, he’d disappear, just like that."
phuuF gaawL gaanM raaiH thuukL yingM dtaaiM khaaM theeF
"The terrorist was shot dead on the spot."
gro:htL saaenR gro:htL khohnM dtrohngM naaF johnM yaakL jaL beepL haiF laaekL khaaM meuuM
"He was so angry at the person facing him he felt like squishing him to death (crushing him) in his hand."
khaL mooyM thuukL japL daiF khaL naL theuuR khaawngR glaangM yuuL khaaM meuuM
"The thief was caught red-handed with the stolen goods (with the goods in his hand)."
phohmR henR khaoR binM kheunF bpaiM naiM aaM gaatL khaaM dtaaM
"I saw him fly up into the air with my own eyes!"
thamM maiM theungR saiL muaakL naiM dtaawnM theeF aaM gaatL raawnH ohpL aaoF chenF neeH
"How come you’re wearing a hat in this sweltering hot weather?"
ใส่หมวกในตอนที่อากาศร้อนอบอ้าวเช่นนี้ซะ ทำไม
saiL muaakL naiM dtaawnM theeF aaM gaatL raawnH ohpL aaoF chenF neeH saH thamM maiM
"What are you wearing a hat in this sweltering hot weather for?"
ยังงั้น คุณไม่เต็มใจรับเขาเป็นสามีตัวเองอีกหรือ
yangM nganH khoonM maiF dtemM jaiM rapH khaoR bpenM saaR meeM dtuaaM aehngM eekL reuuR
"In that case, you no longer really wish to have him as your husband?"
khoonM dtawngF gaanM yangM ngeeH reuuR
"Is this the way you want it?"
ยังไง ถึงเขียนหนังสือยังงั้นล่ะ
yangM ngaiM theungR khiianR nangR seuuR yangM nganH laF
"How is it that you’re writing like that?"
khiianR nangR seuuR yangM nganH daiF yangM ngaiM laF
"How can you write like that?"
เขาจะไปหาซื้อรถยนต์คันใหม่ เมื่อไหร่
khaoR jaL bpaiM haaR seuuH rohtH yohnM khanM maiL meuuaF raiL
"When is he going to buy [that] new car?"
meuuaF raiM khaoR jaL bpaiM haaR seuuH rohtH yohnM khanM maiL
"When would he [ever] buy a new car?"
khoonM kheeuyM bpenM thaH haanR muhH raiM
"When were you in the Service?"
gaawnL jaL khaoF naawnM thuuhrM waangM meuuM theuuR waiH theeF naiR ganM jaH
"Before going to bed, just where on earth did you leave your cell phone?!"
ก่อนจะเข้านอน ฉันอยากรู้ว่า ที่ไหนที่เธอวางมือถือตัวเองนะจ๊ะ
gaawnL jaL khaoF naawnM chanR yaakL ruuH waaF theeF naiR theeF thuuhrM waangM meuuM theuuR dtuaaM aehngM naH jaH
"Before you go to bed, I want to know where *you left your cell phone*, ohh-kayy?"
theeF neeF maiF meeM ngaanM thamM leeuyM
"There’s no work to do at all here (with emphasis on lack of work in this place)."
meeM ngaanM thamM maakF theeF sootL theeF no:hnF
"The most work there is to do is over there (over there is where the work is)."
theeF nanF meeM khaengL binM liiatF thookH deuuanM
"They have a pool-shooting competition there *every month* (*that’s* one of the things they have there, and they have it every month)."
ผมกำลังคิดถึงแฟนอยู่ทีเดียว พอดีหล่อนโทรมา
phohmR gamM langM khitH theungR faaenM yuuL theeM diaaoM phaawM deeM laawnL tho:hM maaM
"I was just thinking about my girlfriend, and then she called."
เรากำลังมองตามหมาตัวนั้นอยู่ทีเดียว มันเห่าพอดี
raoM gamM langM maawngM dtaamM maaR dtuaaM nanH yuuL theeM diaaoM manM haoL phaawM deeM
"We just had our eyes fixed on that dog when it barked."
seuuaF dtuaaM neeH saiL daiF phaawM deeM leeuyM
"This shirt fits just right."
diaaoR neeH laawnL thamM gaanM baanF
"Now, she’s *doing her homework*."
laawnL thamM gaanM baanF diaaoR neeH
"She’s doing her homework *now*."
dtaawnM nanH khaoR yangM bpenM nakH riianM
"At that time he was still in school."
dtaawL bpaiM neeH phohmR jaL dtangF jaiM riianM pheuuaF aL naaM khohtH khaangF naaF
"From now on, I'm going to make up my mind to study for the benefit of my future."
หลังจากที่ได้ร่างรัฐธรรมนูญเสร็จเรียบร้อยแล้ว อเมริกาก็มีรัฐบาลที่มั่นคงในเวลาต่อมา
langR jaakL theeF daiF raangF ratH thaL thamM maH nuunM setL riiapF raawyH laaeoH aL maehM riH gaaM gaawF meeM ratH thaL baanM theeF manF khohngM naiM waehM laaM dtaawL maaM
"Once the drafting of the Constitution was complete and final, America *from that time on* had a stable government."
khaangF naiM meeM naamH yuuL
"There’s *water* inside."
meeM naamH yuuL khaangF naiM
"There’s water *inside*."
meeM naamH yuuL khaangF naawkF
"There's water *outside*."

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